Astigmatism occurs when light focuses irregularly on the back of the eye. This causes two focal points to be present instead of one. Most commonly people will notice blur at distance and near as well as shadowing or ghosting around letters.
Diabetes can cause changes in the retina of the eye, the tissue that detects light. If left untreated, scarring can occur that can cause permanent vision loss. Working with a primary care doctor to keep blood sugar under control and having yearly eye exams can help prevent vision loss and lead to more effective management of diabetes.
Farsightedness and Nearsightedness
These conditions occur when light does not focus properly onto the back of the eye, causing a blurry image to form. Farsightedness will usually cause more blur when reading or working on the computer than when looking far away. Nearsightedness causes distance objects to become blurry, but thing up close are more clear. Both of these conditions can be corrected with glasses or contacts.
Cataracts occur naturally and happen in the lens inside the eye. The lens of the eye becomes more opaque instead of clear, causing light to scatter. The earliest symptoms are glare and halos from lights, especially when driving at night. If they become more severe, cataracts can interfere with day to day activities.
Glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that damage the relay channel between the eye and the brain, called the optic nerve. Increased pressure inside the eye causes subtle damage over time that lead to vision loss. No pain is associated with this, and vision loss first occurs in the periphery, which makes it extremely hard to notice. Treatment usually consists of eye drops to lower the pressure inside the eye and reduce damage to the optic nerve.
The lens inside our eyes naturally loses flexibility and may cause near vision to become blurry. The lens grows larger and more stiff, which causes this loss of flexibility. As this progresses, objects that are closer tend to be out of focus and you may prefer to hold things further and further away.